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Home » Aktyubinsk province. Monuments of history and culture of the Western Kazakhstan.

Abat-Baitak mausoleum.

Trips on the ancient mausoleums of the Aktyubinsk area.

«It is very interesting centre mausoleum Baitak in Kazakhstan. A rectangular prism of the mausoleum which height is much less than width, the harmonous many-sided drum with the extended conic dome»

G.A.Pugachenkova.

The mausoleum, built on the territory of the former basin of the river Sari-hobba sparkled with bright gold colours. Under the influence of the time it lost its facing. Now in some places blue glaze is shown through the cracks of bricks. The building of mausoleum lasted nor a season, neither a year.
The bricks of local origion were used to build this mausoleum.  Burial from the time of altyn Orda was found during the Excavation of barrows at 15 – 20 km. from the mausoleum, about in the second part of the settlement, with a highly developed culture was also found there.
While listening to the melody of dombra, you dissolve in sounds of dombra melody, the time disappears, the soul gains the wings and there is the only Eternity where the heart hears the breath of flight. What herous were born in yhis land! They are always in the memory of nation and serve with a moral landmark. Well-known musicians, famous writers, artists, cosmonauts made the land of Aktobe and Kazakhstan famous. There are many monuments and attractions in the Aktobe region.
By traveling on the tourist destination way you can visit the necropolis of the Middle Ages, and walk on the land which were sang in the epics of akyns, venerate to the tomb of Kobylandy batyr, visit Bulak village, where was born the Hero of the Soviet Union Aliya Moldagulova. In addition, you must see the astounding ancient monument, which was preserved in the territory of West Kazakhstan - Abat Baytak. Mausoleum of Abat-Baytak is an architectural monument of the XIV - XV centuries.
It is located eight miles east of Beskopa village, Kobda district, Aktobe region. It is a unique construction of Altyn Orda period. There is no analogue in terms of architectural style in Kazakhstan. Monument such a portal-type tent is only in Russia, Chelyabinsk region, Bashkiria. According to legend, Abat-Baytak was built on the place of Abat batyr's death. He was a son of famous Kazakh philosopher-utopian Asan Kaigy of the XV century.
Abat fell off the camel during wedding process. By showing their grief, people erected this magnificent monument in short period. The second part 'Baytak' of the name was taken from "The whole world", which started from here. Russian scientist P.Rychkov examined first mausoleum of Abat-Baytak at the end of the XVIII century. He described it as "Baitan". French scientist and member of the Orenburg Archives Commission I.Kastanie gave a complete description of mausoleum in the early of the XX century.
In the 50 - 70 years of the ХХ century, a famous explorer Malbagar Mendikulov said that the mausoleum relates to the XIII century, to the time of foundation of Altyn Orda, when kypshaks were closely connected with Khorezm. There was a suggestion, that the mausoleum was destroyed and had been lost forever to the scientific community.
However, "Kazrestavratsiya expedition of the Ministry of Culture of the Kazakh SSR under control of the expert guidance of religious architectures Serik Azhigaliev added it to the list of protected monuments with national importance in1979 - 1980. According to the classification of Kazakhstan mausoleums, Abat-Baytak relates to portal-domed structures, "marquee mausoleums" with double coats. Today, the historical monument portal was completely destroyed.
Only four-sided frame was preserved from construction, in which preserved eleven- tigran drum with conical dome ending, and partially destroyed. Outside dimensions are 9, 52 x 9, 8 m., an extant height of the mausoleum is 14.5 m, and the original height was about 16 meters. Tetrahedral skeleton has one opening on the south side, and the second is founded by the west towards to the abutting portal (opening was laid of adobe bricks to protect the local population from livestock facilities).
Eleven- tigran drum with a small narrowing to the base of the dome was preserved in the skeleton. False openings were made of bricks on the faces of the drum. Double dome - inside spherical (it is visible on the destroyed region) and external conical marquee. Inside mausoleum was plastered. Internal plan consists of eight-and sixteen tigran, which was rolling smoothly into dome's circle. False openings were made in the western and eastern edges.
There were no traces of graves. Abat-Baytak Mausoleum was built of mud brick, and was lined with burnt bricks in a square shape 27 x 27 x 5 – 7 sm. Brick of keystone section was used in laying dome. There were traces of blue glaze on the face. The smooth transition of the square base of the drum and dome gave an impression of "lightness" of building, and one can only imagine what a medieval architect magnificent monument.
Architectural and stylistic features of the Abat-Baytak mausoleum makes close it to the mausoleums of the XII centuries from Old Urgench - the mausoleum of Il-Arslan khorezm (Fahraddin Razi), the mausoleum of Tekesh khorezm in Khorezm, and the Kok-Kesene mausoleum in Sygnak, Keshene (XIV-XV centuries). It should be noted that the North Caucasus also has similar patterns of portal-hipped tombs, near the Madjar town.
As mentioned above, they were strongly influenced by architectural Khorezm School. All listed toms relate to the Altyn Orda period. Apparently, it was built over the graves of outstanding personalities of that time. Historical monument had passed through significant damages in Altyn Orda time for many centuries. Due to the program "Cultural heritage», it was possible to preserve and restore it. Restoration work began in 2005.
The destroyed dome and the portal restored by using bricks, which was made by medieval technology and raw of local materials. Investigation and restoration work had been successfully completed in 2007. Now Abat-Baytak mausoleum is a pilgrimage place for local people and visitors.

Mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Dome of mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Doorway of mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Gravestones in mausoleum Abat-Baitak.Mausoleum Abat-Baitak.

Authority:
«Monuments of the Central Asia». The author of M. Khahsimov. Publishing house,  Saga, 2001. http://culturemap.kz

Photos
Alexander Petrov.