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Literature of Kazakhstan.

Literary tours in Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan has a small body of national literature, most of it recent in origin. Until the XIX of Kazakh literature. During the reformist period of the early XXth century, before the Soviet imposition of socialist realism, several Kazakh authors developed a modernist body of Kazakh writing.
Aqmet Baytursunov, an author and newspaper editor, is credited with leading this literary advancement. For their activism in cultural politics, these authors were imprisoned in the 1930s during Soviet leader Joseph Stalin’s brutal purges, which targeted leading intellectuals among others.
The best-known Kazakh literary figure of the Soviet period was Mukhtar Auezov, a playwright and novelist. Written monuments of V - IV centuries B.C. bring us the information about the development of crafts, arts, literature and oral folklore. The bright examples of literature are Orkhon writings.
Such poems of Orkhon monuments (VII) as “Korkyt-nameh” (VIII), “Oguz-nameh” (IX) belong to this epoch common for all tribes. Their originals are still preserved on the large tombstones raised on the graves of famous beks and batyrs of Turk tribes - Kul-Tegin, Bilge-Kagan, Toniukuk who ruled the Turk tribes.
The history of literature contains the names of legendary philosophers, scientists and poets: Abunasyr Al-Farabi, the founder of many sciences and arts (Maths, architecture and music); Makhmud Kashgari, the author of the invaluable work “Divan-Lugat-At-Turk” (Dictionary of Turk Dialects); Khodzha Akhmet Yassaui, the author of the unsurpassed collection of poems “Divan-I-Khikmet”; Yussuf Balasaguni, the prominent author of the temporal work of the nations in Central Asia and Kazakhstan “Kutadgu Bilik”.
During the period of Gold Horde or so-called Kypchak period (XIII-ХIV centuries) there were such dastans as “Kissah-Sul-Anbiya”, “Kumanikus Code”, “Mukhabbat-Nameh”, “Nakzh Ul-Faradis”, “Yussuf and Zuleikha”, “Tulistan”, “Dombaul”, “Kissah Nauryz”, “Tarikh-Kipchak” etc.
The bright monument of the Kypchak language “Kumanikus Code” is the dictionary of the Kypchak language, the folklore sample of Kypchaks with the riddles, aphorisms and shepherd songs. At present “Kumanikus Code” is kept in Venice, in St. Mark’s Church.
With the establishment of Kazakh khanate in XV-XVIII centuries the foundation is made for the natural development of the national spirituality. One of the persons in XV century who had become the legend was the poet and philosopher, the advisor to the first khans (Zhanibek and Kerei) – Khasen Sabituly who was called Asan-Kaigy by the people. Like Thomas Moor and Tomaso Campanella he expressed the ideals and was looking for the blessed place.
Great value for the history of Kazakh literature belongs to the collections of the chronicles “Tarikhi Rashidih” by Mohamed Khaidar Dulatih, “Zhamagat Tauarikh” by Kadyrgali Kossan Uly Zhalairi. During that epoch there were such creative poets-zhyrau as Sypyra zhyrau, Shalkiyz, Kaztugan, Aktamberdy and Bukhar zhyrau. Numerous dastans, eposes and ritual songs were created.
Legendary works of the oral folk creativity, for example, “Koblandy-Batyr”, “Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan-Sulu”, “Kyz Zhibek” are the symbols of national spirit. Great philosopher, incomparable artists of word, composer and tireless enlightener, Abai was the genius of his time, the prominent personality of the global significance. When he was 13 he mastered Arabic, Persian, Chagatai and Russian languages.
This allowed him getting acquainted with the books of Oriental classical writers. He brilliantly translated into Kazakh the works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov, Goethe, Schiller, Byron. He created immortal artworks in poetry and in music. “Kara Sozder” (Words of Edification) is the prose of the poet, which is the religious-philosophical treatise that expresses the whole depth of the folk wisdom blessed consecrated by the love to the mankind.
One of the first Kazakh scientists who made the great contribution into the world culture is Shokan Shyngysuly Ualikhanov. He studied myths and legends, traditions and customs, language and religion of Kazakh and Kyrgyz people. In the books written by Shokan “Ancient Legends of Great Kyrgyz-Kaisats Horde”, “Shamanism Traces of Kazakhs”, “Notes About Kashgaria”, “On Islam in Steppe” and other scientific works he made the systematic analysis of the culture of Kazakhs and of other relative Turk nations.
In the twenties of 20 century the prose estalishement process in Kazakhstan was completed. B.Mailin, M.Auezov, S.Seifullin, I.Zhansugurov, S.Mukanov, S.Sharipov, Z.Tlepbergenov, G.Musrepov, G.Mustafin, U.Turmanzhanov, E.Bekenov and others wrote stories, essays, tales and novels.
They found appropriate realistic colours for the creation of bright human images and characters, for description of the characters’ portraits. Modern literature is developed via the deep disclosure of the inner world of people, its true and image-bearing reflection. Since 1933 the section of Russian literature starts operating in the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan. I.Shukhov’s novels “Bitter Line” (1931), “Hatred” (1932) are referred to as the significant works of the modern literature of that period in the novel genre.
During the Second World War A.Bek in his novel “Volokolamsk Motorway” (1943) created the heroic images of B.Momyshuly, I.Panfilov. In the post-war period, such tales as “The Image of the Sun” by I.Shukhov (1950), “Starting Point” by V.Vanyushin (1952) were published. N.Anov in his novel “Wings of the Song” (1959) reflected the social and historical situation of Kazakhstan in the twenties.
The book shows the formation and development of the national arts, creates the images of talented masters (I.Baizakov, A.Kashaubayev, K.Munaitpasov, A.Zatayevich and others). “Snowstorm”, the novel of I.Shegolikhin, was published in 1961; G.Chernogolovina’s tale “Unrainy Season” and novel “Risk Zone” were published in 1981. In the novel of M.Simashko “Commissar Zhangildin” the bright image of the representative of the Kazakh people was shown.
Poetry saw the negation of talented poets: V.Antonov, A.Yelkov, D.Ryabukha, L.Skalkovsky, F.Morgun, V.Smirnov, M.Chistyakov and others. In 1977 the section of Korean literature starts operating in the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan. Writer and poet Kim Dyun (1900-1980) is the author of poem “Aliya” dedicated to the Kazakh girl-warrior A.Moldagulova (1960). Since 1937 spectators saw more than 100 plays of Korean playwrights in the republican Korean theatre.
Plays of M.Auezov “Karagoz” and “Kobylandy”, of G.Musrepov “Kozy Korpesh – Bayan Sulu” as well as plays of O.Bodykov and K.Mukhamedzhanov were made in the Korean language.
German poets and writers are successfully working in the republic. Poetical works of R.Jacquemien, K.Velz, I.VArkentin, and prose of A.Reimgen, V.Klein, D.Golman, A.Debolsky, G.Belger were published.
In 1932 Uigur section was organized. In this period the poetry of I.Sattirov, I.Iskanderov were successful and plays of Z.Assimov, A.Sadirov and K.Khasanov were staged. Tale collections of K.Abdullin, Z.Samadi, Z.Bosakov, T.Tokhtamov, M.Zulpykarov, A.Ashirov, N.Baratov, P.Sabitova, as well as the poems of I.Bakhtiya, M.Hamrayev, I.Bahniyazov, R.Kadyri, A.Ganiyev, M.Abdurakhmanov. A.Kunanbayev’s “Poems” (1987), S.Mukanov’s “Baluan Sholak” (1987), and G.Musrepov’s “Her Name is Ulpan” (1987) were translated into Uigur and published.
Famous writers and poets receive support from the state; D.Snegin, G.Belger, M.Simashko received the Peace and Spiritual Harmony Award from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

www.kazakhstan-tourist.isd.kz  "Zhetysu is the Land of  tourism”. A Tourist Guide-book. Almaty.  2003. 68 p. and the material for this page is taken from the printed edition."Guide to Kazakhstan" Baur Publishing House 2002