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History of Inder Lake.

Express tour in Kazakhstan.

“Everywhere on the top of the ridge one can see a vast lake covered by snow like a mountain covered with mountain fells and in some places the onago shore is so close that no more than a mile away from the mountain. The elevated shores and the lake itself are obviously located above the water surface of Yaik. In fairness, this lake can be called a miracle of nature. But the Inder Lake is not only large in size, but also in terms of its and the surrounding countries, the memorable property more deserves to be called by that name.”

Peter Simon Pallas. 1769.

Excursion to Inder Lake in Atyrau region.

The healing properties of the mineral springs flowing along the shore of Lake Inder (Tuzdykol) have been known since ancient times. Studies of Inder salt began back in the days of the Russian Empire - in 1778, an expedition led by academician Pallas visited the vicinity of the lake.
In the middle of the summer of 1769, Peter Simon Pallas reached Orenburg. He walked along the river. Yaika first east to 59 ° c. village and studied "dry mountain ridges ... (Guberlinsky mountains), wild ... completely bare", and then to the west - to the Yaitsky town, now Uralsk.
From there, Pallas drove south to the mouth of Yaik and noted that along the way “... the land and grass noticeably change. The bare steppe the farther the smoother. ” On the way, he collected detailed interrogation information about one of the largest Kamysh-Samara lakes.
“On the northern side two mediocre (narrow), heavily forested rivers flowed into it - Bolshoi and Maly Uzen. Reed grows along the shores of the lake. The entire eastern side of the lake is surrounded by ... dunes that differ little from Ryn Sands.”
Pallas examined Lake Inder and the heights surrounding it: "This mountain range consists of ... deliberately high, rocky mountains on the Yaitsky side, and after a little time the towering stone mountains." He noted that of these, "salt water beats everywhere."
Climbing the Inder mountains, he saw “a vast lake, like a large field covered with snow. The lake has a roundish shape and many small bays. " The "dry steppe" stretched to the south, and beyond 48 ° c. w. - “low wet and salty country” until Guryev.
In 1804, an expedition led by Major Sozi investigated the vicinity of Lake Inder. After the establishment of Soviet power, in 1927, research was carried out by an expedition led by Volkov, a little later the All-Union Scientific Research Center from the city of Leningrad, the Moscow Mining Institute, etc.
In 1938, the results of the research of scientists were published in the book "Big Emba", edition It was not replicated, but distributed among a narrow circle of specialists. Inderite (Eng. Inderite) Mg (B3O3 (OH) 5) • 5H2O is a mineral belonging to borates.
It is named after the find in the Indersky borate deposit. Discovered by A. M. Boldyreva. Colorless crystals, in massive aggregates white, pink. They occur during the leaching of previously deposited salts from diapir salt domes.
Mud on the coast of a salt lake formed in the prehistoric era. In his book "Inder Borat", written in 1938, Pavel Tatarinov attributes the time of its occurrence to the Jurassic period.
Black mud along with minerals is extremely rich in humus, enzymes that are very beneficial for human health. It contains hormonal substances formed as a product of decomposition of plants, insects and even birds (biologically active humus).
Insects that crawled into the salt lake cannot fly back, they are salted, gradually decompose and turn into dirt. In addition, they take part in the formation of various minerals, in particular, inderite and satimullite. These minerals are characteristic only for this area and are not found anywhere else in the world.
110 species of wormwood grow on a plateau at the foot of the mountains.

Work in salt mines around Lake Inder. 1904.


from the local history museum of Atyrau.