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Geography Almaty reserve.

Excursions in Almaty reserve.

“At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst”


Nature of reserves of Kazakhstan.

Snow cover in the Almaty reserve lies from 3 in low mountains up to 7 months and more than 9 months in highlands. The term of its establishment different from the beginning of December under mountains to the middle of October at big heights.
Thickness of a cover reaches 60 - 80 cm. In low mountains snow begins to thaw usually at the end of the first decade of March, in highlands - only at the end of May. In the conditions of small overcast and big day length the radiation factor has significant effect on climate. In mountains direct and total radiation is more in the winter, and it is less in the summer, than on plains.
Sunshine duration within a year at the height of 2500 m exceeds 2000 hours. The defining climate factor except solar radiation is atmospheric circulation. Near the reserve winds of the southern points are prevailing, the second place in the directions is taken by north.
Especially strong winds influence indicators of temperature and humidity. The territory of the reserve belongs to Zailiysky Alatau mountain climatic area. Climate continental with a late spring and summer maximum of rainfall it is typical for Northern Tien-Shan.
The main characteristics of climate - high solar radiation and the difficult nature of atmospheric circulation. Average annual air temperature fluctuates from 6,8 in low mountains to 0,8 at the upper bound. The minimum average monthly temperatures are noted in January (- 4,3 in the lower part to - 9,7 in top), maximum - in July (from 18,1 to 10,6).
In the summer fall of temperature with increase in height is noticeable, this regularity is expressed by a gradient 0,5 - 0,7 on each 100 m. In the winter temperature increase of air reaches 0,6 on each 100 m up to the height of 1600 - 1800 meters above sea level then consecutive temperature drop is observed - 0,3 by 100 m duration of the cold period in mountains make more than 4 months, and at the height of 3000 m - more than 7 months.
For winter are characteristic day radiation thaw is frequent. Transition from winter by summer in the thermal relation is made the foothills in the first decade of March, at big heights in May. An important climatic factor is the quantity of the dropping-out rainfall and humidity of air.
Their maximum is the share of a middle part of mountains, within heights from 1500 to 2300 m. In the foothills the average annual amount of precipitation makes 555 mm, at the heights of 1600 - 2200 m 840 - 880 mm, and at the height of 2500 - 3000 m - 735 - 750 mm drop out.
Climate indicators naturally change with change of absolute height. In this regard on Northern Tien-Shan are allocated 4 high-rise climatic speak rapidly low mountains the different grass steppe, mid-mountain forest meadow steppe and average mountain coniferous forest, mountainous (subalpine and Alpine meadow and steppe) and nivalny glyatsialny.
In the reserve all parts, except low mountains are presented. Climate of average mountains moderated continental, mountainous - cold, sharply continental. Glacial and perpetual snow belt climate of a zone the most severe. Average annual temperature makes minus 10 - minus 12 is not present habitual division here on the 4th season.
Even in July average monthly air temperature negative, and snow drops out all the year round.
Orography and geology of the Almaty reserve. The modern relief of the reserve began to be formed at the end of the Paleogene - the beginning of the Neogene. The Alpine orogenesis caused a further raising of mountains.
The movements of the maximum amplitude happened around Talgar mountain ridge. The active tectonic movements continue and now, earthquakes are quite frequent here. In a pleistocene there was the first integumentary freezing of the most sublime part of the reserve.
The second freezing was less considerable and terminated about 10000 years ago (Murzayev, 1958; Zhiryakov, etc., 1990). The main orographical drawing of a northern part of the reserve is created by the Talgar massif and three spurs departing from it with rocky crests, snow fields and glaciers.
This part Glacial and perpetual snow belt is accurately limited by the lower parts of glaciers (3200 - 3400 m) and the snow line lying in the range of 3700 - 3900 m. Below it up to the height of 2700 - 2800 m the belt of highlands which relief has abrupt character is located.
Considerable sites of crests and slopes represent rocky rocks, large fragments of rocks and stony taluses are numerous here. Other northern part of the reserve belongs to average mountains which also have steep slopes and strongly dismembered relief.
In the southern part of the reserve Glacial and perpetual snow belt forms of a relief, especially in collecting area Southeast Talgar, and Southern Issyk prevail. Exactly here glaciers the Athlete are located and Korzhenevsky.
The most part of the territory of average mountains is covered with fragments of rocks, crushed stone, sand, clay conglomerates and gravel. The spreading breeds are granites, granites and diorites. Gneisses, crystal slates and quartzites meet.

Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.Natural sights of the Almaty park.

Ishkov E. Reserves of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2006. Under the general edition of Roman Yashchenko. The international union of conservation of IUCN - The World Conservation Union. Physiographic features (across Kerteshev, Vagapov, Yashchenko, 2001). 

Alexander Petrov.