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History of discovery of peak Communism

Dushanbe Central Asia on Great Silk Road.

"And not like a monument
The stone that gave you peace.
Like eternal flame sparkles in the afternoon
Top of emerald ice
Which you never conquered ”

Vladimir Vysotsky. "Top".

Climbing to peak of Communism along path of Abalakov.

The country's high pole - the peak of Communism, 7495 meters above sea level - is located in the north-western part of the Pamirs, at the junction of the ridges of the Academy of Sciences and Peter the Great. The honor of opening the ridge of Peter the Great belongs to V.F. Oshanin (1880), the ridge of the Academy of Sciences - N.L. Korzhenevsky (1927).
The history of the study of the northwestern part of Pamir and the discovery of the highest point of the Soviet Union, now called the peak of Communism (1931 - 1961 - the peak of Stalin), is associated with the research of N.I. Kosinenko (1909), Y.I. Belyaev and P.I. Besedina (1916), N.L. Korzhenevsky (1924 and 1926), again Ya.I. Belyaeva (1928), I.G. Dorofeeva (1928, 1932, 1933).
Military topographer I.G. Dorofeev (now retired colonel), on August 2, 1928, passing from the Tanymasa valley to the middle, then unknown part of the Fedchenko glacier, applied the surrounding ridges, peaks and glaciers onto his tablet.
At his disposal was a preliminary diagram of the ridges of this region, compiled by N.L. Korzhenevsky (1927). The topographer was able to compare his observations with the scheme of N.L. Korzhenevskiy. “Comparing the results of my survey with the scheme of N. L. Korzhenevsky, naturally took it for Garmo peak,” writes I.G. Dorofeev is a trapezoidal peak (later called Stalin's peak), located in the system of the ridge of the Academy of Sciences and dominating the other peaks.
This assumption did not raise any doubts among any of the participants in the 1928 expedition. Due to the lack of tools, I could not accurately determine its height ... ”(I. G. Dorofeev, 1952). The final height and location of the highest peak of the USSR were established during the decoding of the phototeodolite survey in 1929.
These studies also proved that the peak “7495” and the peak of Garmo, which for a long time were taken for the same peak, are different heights located at a distance of 20 kilometers from each other. The decoding of the riddle of the Garmo knot was made only in 1932 by the forces of several detachments of the Tajik complex expedition of the USSR Academy of Sciences, mainly consisting of climbers.
After field work in 1932 in Moscow, the results of many years of research were summed up. They showed that the Garmo peak (6595 meters above sea level) and the “7495” peak are two independent peaks, with the true Garmo peak located in the left branch of the glacier of the same name, called the Vavilova Glacier, and the “7495” peak lies at the source of the middle branch Garmo Glacier - Belyaev Glacier.
Peak “7495” turned out to be an independent, previously unknown peak.
This explains the difference in altitude that surprised climbers climbing the northern shoulder of Garmo peak in the summer of 1932. The discovery of the peak, today called the peak of Communism, completed the enormous work of Russian and Soviet researchers, which lasted more than fifty years (1878 - 1932).
Therefore, as in other cases, the discovery of the highest peak of the country cannot be attributed to the merits of one researcher or any group. It was the result of collective labor and meant a brilliant victory for Soviet geographical science. Passed routes to the peak of Communism.
The classic route traveled by E.M. Abalakov and N.V. Gorbunov from the Bivachny glacier along the eastern crest of the peak, has recently become less popular. This was facilitated by the discovery of a more convenient route from Fortambek Glacier, traveled by the Burevestnik JV group led by V. Maksimov along the route: Fortambek Glacier, northwest ridge to the Pamir firn plateau, under Leningrad peak, western peak shoulder 6950 meters above sea level .
Exit to the Pamir firn plateau, first passed by the group of V. Maksimov, was called the edge of the Petrel. The route along the Petrel rib is convenient primarily because the greatest technical difficulties are encountered at relatively low altitudes, between 5000 and 6000 meters above sea level, it is easier to overcome them here.
The route was not dangerous. On the Pamir firn plateau, you can release cargo from a helicopter. And, besides everything, opposite the exit to the ridge there is a very convenient huge green meadow, on which the MI-4 and MI-8 helicopters calmly land, despite the altitude of 4000 meters above sea level.
From the meadow Fortambek (Suloeva), crossing the glacier, the group goes directly under the edge of the Petrel. Ascent along this route with descent to the base camp lasts 6 - 7 days. At the peak of Communism, 16 routes were passed, along which the peaks reached 718 climbers of the USSR, socialist countries and England.
13 days were spent on the first ascent through the East ridge, of which only 6 were running, and the remaining 7 days were raging. The total time for the expedition is 30 - 35 days. This is the estimated time for planning an expedition to the peak of Communism.
Climbing to a height of 5600 m from the north-eastern side, first completed by two groups of the Central Command DSO “Mehnat” in 1970 (V. Elchibekov), can be recommended as one of the safest options for reaching the first eastern ridge from the Ordzhonikidze Glacier (in the basin Bivachny glacier).
In 1973, a group of Polish climbers led by P. Mlotiecki climbed the center of the summit bastion of the peak of Communism. CSO "Tajikistan" awards everyone who has reached the highest point of the country - the peak of Communism, with a special badge.
By the approaches to the peak of Communism - there are four directions.
The first direction to the peak of Communism - to the eastern slopes of the peak, from the Bivachny glacier. This direction was used during the first ascent in 1933 (E. Abalakov and to a height of 7300 meters above sea level - N. Gorbunov).
It starts from the city of Osh and passes through the Alai Valley, the village of Darautkurgan, along the Altyndara River, the Tersagar Pass with a height of 3613 meters above sea level, Altınmazar, the Seldara River, Fedchenko and Bivachny glaciers.
The key part of the route is to wade the turbulent and high-water river Seldara flowing from the Fedchenko Glacier. Usually the crossing is carried out in the place where the main stream is divided into a number of sleeves, riding, if possible, into “low water”, which happens after the next cooling.
But since the time of work of all expeditions for climbing falls mainly in July (the time of the greatest melting), the river always, even after periods of cooling, is full of water. Without experienced guides and strong horses, crossing Seldara is very risky.
The pack caravan was able to navigate up the Bivachny glacier for 15 - 20 kilometers. The best path goes along the right (orographically) runcluft of the Bivachny glacier, where there are several glades with grass vegetation for feed horses.
Recently, climbing expeditions have been used by a helicopter that delivered people and cargo to the Bivachny glacier, and again to the right runcluft, where the pack caravan also reached. The flight time of MI-4 from Darautkurgan is 45 - 50 minutes.
The second direction is to the peak of Communism - to the northern slopes of the peak of Communism through Fortambek Glacier. Prior to Altınmazar, the direction is similar to the first. From Altynmazar, the path goes down the Muksu River (the Seldara River, taking the right tributaries of the Kaindy River and the Saukdara River, is called Muksu).
Overcoming the Muksu River and moving further along the Fortambek River to the glacier of the same name will again be a difficult obstacle on this path. Below Altynmazar, the river becomes more watery and it is impossible to count on fording in July-August.
About 20 kilometers from Altynmazar down the river, opposite the Mushketov (Karasel) and Ayudzhilga glaciers, there is a steel cable stretched across the river, along which it is possible to organize a crossing. It is quite possible to cross the water on local rafts - salah, consisting of a light wooden frame, based on 6 - 7 puffed bull skins.
According to this example, it is possible to build a raft of several automobile chambers inflated with air. 
The third direction to the peak of Communism - also leads to the northern slopes of the peak through the Fortambek glacier. You can get to the Lyakhsh state farm (Dzhirgatal district of Tajikistan) by car from Dushanbe or GVF planes that make regular passenger flights along the route Dushanbe - Garm - Jirgatal - Lyakhsh or from the Ferghana Valley along the route Osh - Darautkurgan - Lyakhsh.
From Lyakhsh, the further way is possible only on foot up the right bank of the Muksu River to the Khoja-tau point, where a steel cable with a cradle for crossing is hung.
From Khojatau, the preserved trail runs along the left bank of the Muksu River to the Fortambek River. Very difficult is the way up the Fortambek River to the glacier of the same name. The fact is that the local population long ago left these difficult places and went into the valleys.
The only visitors to the upper Muksu were climbers, tourists and rare hunters who, naturally, do not restore bridges and paths, but they themselves are destroyed. Hiking trails in the area 25-30 years ago were in much better condition and were passable for pack animals.
Now the cargoes for organizing high-altitude ascents have to be carried over, which not only increases the term of the expedition, but also significantly exhausts the climbers before the final assault on the summit.
All recent expeditions to the peaks of Communism and Korzhenevskaya from Fortambek Glacier used helicopters based in Lyakhsh, Darautkurgan or Dzhirgatal. There are four proven helipads in the Fortambek River Basin.
The first of them is for climbing the peak of the Korzhenevskaya northern ridge along the classical route - located on a wooded (juniper, birch) ancient moraine above Fortambek Glacier at the mouth of the river, flowing from the Korzhenevskaya glacier, 3400 meters high above sea level, the second - at the southern foot of the Korzhenevskaya peak, between the right side moraine of the Moskvin glacier and the slopes of the peak, 3800 meters high above sea level, pebble, sand, rare stones), the third - at the confluence of the Moskvin glacier with the Walther glacier next to a small lake on grassy shores, 4000 meters above sea level and the fourth - opposite the Tramplinny glacier on the left side of the valley, 4000 meters high above sea level - glade Suloeva.
Fourth direction to the peak of Communism - from Dushanbe through the Garmo glacier to the circus of the Belyaev glacier, under the southern wall of the peak of Communism, to the village of Tavildar by scheduled passenger plane or car to the village of Minadu on the Hingou River (240 - 250 kilometers from Dushanbe) and then by helicopter to the language of the Garmo Glacier (flight duration 45 - 50 min.). It is possible to land a helicopter on the Belyaev Glacier, at a height of 4600 meters above sea level, or to dump goods there without landing a helicopter.
The path along the Garmo Glacier to the Belyaev Glacier takes 2 full days. Helicopter landing is possible only in the upper part of the Belyaev Glacier. The walking route from Minadu up the Hin-Gou river is very difficult, again due to the poor condition of the trail and bridges, as the population has resettled here, as well as on the Muksu River.
The approaches to the peak of Korzhenevskaya. The northwestern, western, and southern slopes are accessible from Fortambek Glacier, the northern and northeastern slopes are accessible from the Mushketov Glacier, and the eastern ones from the Ayujilga Glacier.
Helicopter landing sites are located on Fortambek Glacier. In addition, two more helicopter landing sites are located on the Mushketov Glacier on the left side: the upper one - at the tip of the northeast ridge (Mehnat, 1968); lower - at the confluence of the Mushketov tributary glacier (Donetsk, 1968).
On the banks of the Muksu River, at the mouth of the Ayujilga River, there is another helipad, which in 1965 was used by the expedition of the TsS DSO "Spartak" when climbing the peak of Korzhenevskaya, and in 1968 - the expedition of the TsS DSO "Mehnat".

 Vladimir Iosifovich Racek, “The Five Highest Peaks of the USSR”, Uzbekistan Publishing House, Tashkent, 1975. "Fortambek and its peaks." G. Kalinin. Uzbekistan, Tashkent. 1983.