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History of research Korgalzhyn reserve.

Tours in Korgalzhinsky reserve.

“Some birds are not meant to be caged, that's all. Their feathers are too bright, their songs too sweet and wild. So you let them go, or when you open the cage to feed them they somehow fly out past you. And the part of you that knows it was wrong to imprison them in the first place rejoices, but still, the place where you live is that much more drab and empty for their departure” 

Stephen King, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. “A Story from Different Seasons”.

Sights of Korgaldzhinsky reserve.

The first information about the nature of the Korgalzhyn Territory dates back to 1816 and was delivered Military topographic expedition led by I.P. Shangina. In the following, we find some description of nature and the local population in A. Levshin, in a publication of 1832.
The first comprehensive physical and geographical description of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes was made by P.G. Ignatov’s materials from their survey in 1898. Along with morphometric and hydrological descriptions of the lakes, a bathymetric survey was carried out directly along Lake Tengiz with depth measurements in the main stretch and the northeastern bay.
At the same time, meteorological measurements were taken and botanical and zoological collections were collected. On Lake Tengiz, they discovered flamingo colonies. This was followed by repeated studies of the nature of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn depression in various directions: geological, soil, hydrological, physico-chemical, botanical, zoological. I
n general, all of them enriched our knowledge about the nature of the region and contributed to the process of organizing the reserve. Botanical research. Long before the reserve, the area of ​​Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes was repeatedly visited by botanists as part of the expeditions of the Resettlement Administration to study the colonization regions of Asian Russia.
So, in 1908 V.F. Kapelkin examined the west coast of Lake Tengiz, and in 1910 F.F. Zelinsky visited the southwest coast of the same lake. In 1914, as part of the S. Dengiz expedition S.S. Ganeshin and V.F. Semenov was described by the southern coasts of Korgalzhyn and Tengiz lakes.
During these years, the first materials now known from the herbarium from the reserve were collected. The results of the observations are presented in the reports of the corresponding expeditions. During the development of virgin and fallow lands, two expeditions went through the reserve's territory:
the Special Integrated Expedition through the lands of new agricultural development (1954 - 1955) and the Biocomplex Expedition to study the vegetation and animal population (1957 - 1963). ) USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1962, the Biocomplex expedition organized and conducted stationary observations of the dry steppe areas of the Kurgaldzhin virgin reserve.
The results of the expeditions, with links to the reserve, are summarized and published in the editions of the Botanical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Subsequently, for a long time, botanical research in the reserve was practically not carried out.
Data on the flora and vegetation available to the reserve have been collected since 1978: 1978 - 1979. A geobotanical survey of the territory was carried out. Performers: a group of specialists from the Tselingiprozemproekt Institute (Tselinograd).
The first large-scale map of the reserve’s vegetation was created (scale 1: 25.000). 1980 - 1985 Development theme: “Flora of vascular plants of the Kurgaldzhinsky reserve (higher water and land). Contractor: full-time employee T.V. Sidorova.
The research results were published, in particular, the first list of the flora of higher plants of the reserve was published (Sidorova T.V., 1988). 1987 - 1991 theme development: "The vegetation cover of the reserve and its dynamics." Contractor: full-time employee T.V. Sidorova.
Research results not published 1993 - 1995 Soil-geobotanical surveys were carried out in the reserve. Performers: a group of specialists from the State Scientific and Production Center for Land Resources and Land Management (Almaty) with the participation of the full-time botanist T.V.Sidorova.
The first soil map and chronologically the second map of the reserve’s vegetation on a scale of 1: 50.000, as well as the manuscript of the report “Soils and vegetation of the reserve” were created. Zoological research of the Korgaldzhinsky reserve.
Ornithological works in the Korgaldzhinsky reserve. Among zoological studies on The area of ​​the reserve is the most numerous ornithological. In June 1906, the district Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes were visited by ornithologist G.E. Johansen, but his materials remained unpublished.
In the spring of 1929, the southern steppes of the Akmola region and some lakes along the lower reaches of the river. Nurses were examined by a zoological expedition led by S.D. Lavrov. Materials on the ecology and distribution of 112 bird species obtained as a result of observations have not lost their scientific significance to the present (Lavrov, 1930).
In 1935, on the instructions of the Peter and Paul Museum P.Ya. Derevyagin observed birds in the lower reaches of the Nura River and on Korgalzhyn Lake. He published information about 131 species of birds in the reserve area.
In July and August 1948, an expedition of the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, led by O.I., worked on the Korgalzhyn lakes. Semenova-Tian-Shansky with the participation of M.I. Vladimirskaya, A.A. Mezhenny and A.S. Sokolova.
They studied the biology of birds and the commercial significance of waterfowl (Sokolov A.S., 1950; Vladimirskaya M.I., Mezhenny A.A., 1952). Passed through the territory of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes routes of the Kustanai (Integrated Tselinnaya) expedition of the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University (1955 - 1965).
As a part of which A.M. Cheltsov-Bebutov worked together with E.N.Matyushkin and N.F. Fetisov, who produced zoogeographic mapping. Ornithologists of the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (now the Institute of Zoology and Animal Gene Fund of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan) have made and continue to make a significant contribution to the study of the avifauna of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes.
At one time, this made it possible to justify the restoration of the Korgalzhyn Reserve and prepare documents for the inclusion of the territory on the List of Ramsar Sites. Famous zoologist of Kazakhstan I.A. Dolgushin visited the Korgalzhyn steppes and lakes twice: in 1958, together with M.I. Korelov and D.I. Chekmenev, and in 1959 - with D.I. Chekmenev, E.F. Rodionov and I.F. Borodikhin.
At the same time, a collection of birds and interesting factual material covering various aspects of ornithology were collected. Many materials were included in the 5-volume monograph “Birds of Kazakhstan” (1960, 1962, 1970, 1972, 1974). 1958 - 1959 V.F. Gavrin observed the hunting and fishing birds of Lake Korgalzhyn.
Extensive material has been collected on their biology, migration, and abundance. During research on the lakes of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn system, the first waterfowl were ringed. In subsequent years, bird ringing is performed here almost every year. V.F. Gavrin (1968) believed that the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn complex was unparalleled not only in Kazakhstan, but throughout the former Soviet Union in terms of the abundance and diversity of hunting birds.
In the summer of 1970, a trip was made to the lakes of the Korgalzhyn Reserve. Gavrilov, A.F. Kovshar, Yu.N. Grachev, A.M. Sema and M.N. Bikbulatov. In 1970 - 1971 EM. Auezov studies the waterfowl of the lakes of the protected area.
In August 1995, S.N. Erokhov and A.E. Gavrilov made an assessment of the current state wetland birds of the Korgalzhyn nature reserve and proposed a list of model species as a base for monitoring. Stationary ornithological studies of the reserve’s staff: 1959 - 1962 I.A. Krivitsky conducted year-round observations in the steppe reserve.
Attention was mainly given to passerines, chicken, and birds of prey (Krivitsky, 1999). At the same time, material was collected on waterfowl and near-water birds on the lakes Tengiz and Korgalzhyn. Later, until 1979, he made several more visits to the reserve area.
Observation materials were published in 31 scientific papers. 1968 - 1972 V.V. Khrokov studied the biology of waders. Studies on the topic: "Biology and practical significance of waders of the Tengiz-Kurgaldzhin depression" (1969 - 1972).
Periodically made observations in the reserve and in subsequent years. Based on research and observation, 30 works were published. 1968 - 1984 E.N. From March to November Volkov conducted biology research annually, the number and distribution of flamingos, gulls, and also periodically observed birds in other months of the year.
Two topics were completed: “The abundance and biology of flamingos in Central Kazakhstan and measures for their protection” (1960 - 1975) and “The abundance, distribution and migration of gull birds of the Tengiz-Kurgaldzhin system of lakes” (1978 - 1982). Published 25 scientific papers.
1971 - 1980 V.A. Julius studied the abundance, distribution, and migration of grebes and lamellar beaks in the reserve and on adjacent lakes. The topic was fulfilled: “Morphology of lake landscapes and ecological and geographical features of waterfowl and wading birds on Lake Kurgaldzhin” (1973 - 1976). Published 16 works.
1975 - 1991 N.N. Andrusenko fruitfully studied the avifauna of the reserve and actively made ringing of birds. According to his observations and research results, 40 scientific papers have been published that have not lost their relevance today.
The following topics were completed: “The hydrofauna of Lake Tengiz and its importance in the nutrition of mass species of waterfowl” (1976 - 1980) - along with hydrobiological data, the manuscript of the report contains a large amount of factual material on waterfowl; “Migration of waterfowl on the lakes of Kurgaldzhin and Tengiz” (1983-1988) - joint research with A.I. Minakov;
"Ecology, migrations and abundance of copepods and ankle birds in water bodies Kurgaldzhinsky reserve ”(1989 - 1993) - in 1991 the work was interrupted, and the topic remained unfinished. The collective monograph “Birds of the Kurgaldzhinsky Reserve” published in 1985 (I.A. Krivitsky, V.V. Khrokov, E.N. Volkov, V.A. Zhuli) summed up the studies of avifauna reserve for more than half a century. In the 90s, special ornithological studies by the reserve were practically not carried out due to the lack of a qualified specialist ornithologist on the staff.
During this period, bird watching was limited by the requirements of the Chronicle of Nature. Theriological studies on the territory of the Korgalzhyn Reserve are less active than ornithological. In 1944, acclimatization of muskrat was carried out on Lake Korgalzhyn. (Strautman, 1963).
In general, the event was unsuccessful for commercial purposes, however, the small animal continues to stay in small numbers on the lakes of the reserve. In 1958 - 1961 - the period of the existence of the virgin reserve - within its limits B.D. Abaturov studied the influence of steppe pied poultry on the soil and vegetation of the dry steppes (Abaturov, 1963, 1964).
From 1975 to 1998 Specialists of the sanitary-epidemiological service on the territory of the reserve made observations of rodents and insectivores (Kraft, Pugin, 1981). The reserve archive contains brief reports of the service. Some materials published. Ichthyological and hydrobiological studies.
In 1933, the lake expedition of the All-Union Institute of Lake and River Fisheries under the leadership of P.F. Domracheva conducted fish and economic studies of the lakes of the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn basin. The expedition has not only significantly replenished since the time of P.G. Ignatova's physical and geographical knowledge about the lakes of the reserve, but re-examined them hydrologically and biologically.
In the late 40s and early 50s, the Nura River basin with the Korgalzhyn lakes was explored by N.P. Serov and S.K. Tyutenkov. In the work of N.P. Serova (1953) described the taxonomy, reproduction, migration, and commercial significance of fish, and also their distribution on separate lakes. S.K. Tyutenkov (1956) described their hydrobiology, as well as the nutritional conditions of fish on Lake Korgalzhyn. Expeditionary forces of the Institute of Ichthyology and Fisheries (KazNIIRKh) in 1963 - 1966 under the leadership of I.K. Ivanov and in 1971 - 1974 under the leadership of G.M. Dukravets carried out appraisal of reservoirs of the former Tselinograd region, including the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lakes.
The expeditions brought new data on the ichthyology and hydrobiology of the lakes of the reserve (Dukravets G.N., Biryukov Yu.A., 1976; Dikanskaya A.G., 1972). In the summer periods of 1991 and 1995 The staff of the Institute of Zoology of the Republic of Kazakhstan carried out comprehensive hydrobiological studies of the lakes of the reserve.
Important results were obtained. The natural reserve complex with its lakes and reed beds under the existing water regime provides, to a certain extent, self-purification of river water from pollution and the optimal state of hydrological and ichthyological fauna.
Currently, the status of ichthyological fauna in Korgalzhyn lakes is quite safe and be in balance in terms of food availability and predator ratios (Matmuratov et al., 1996). From the number of full-time employees, A.V. made a long time monitoring the ichthyological fauna of the reserve.
Koshkin. In the period from 1984 to 2004 he carried out a research topic: “Ecology and dynamics of the abundance of the main fish species in the lakes of the Kurgaldzhinsky reserve and the development of recommendations for their protection and reproduction”.
The reports are mostly naturalistic in nature. Observations not published. For 40 years, from 1958 to 1998, scientists from academic institutes and reserve employees published 285 works of mainly zoological profile in the protected area (Sidorova, 2001).
Until the 90s, students from some universities of the USSR periodically conducted term and diploma studies in the reserve. Unfortunately, not all manuscripts of student works are preserved in the archive of the reserve, many of them are lost.
Since 1999, students from German educational institutions have come to practice in the area of ​​the reserve through the NABU (German Nature Conservation Union). In the first four years, they provided the reserve with great help in counting birds during autumn migrations.
Since 1974, the reserve has been systematically observing the program “Chronicle of Nature”. Since 1987, the “Nature Calendar” has been compiled based on phenological observations of birds and some other phenomena.

"Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve." Sidorova T.