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Mining in Kazakhstan.

Mining is the leading branch of industry in Kazakhstan. The republic contains large reserves of tungsten, lead, copper, manganese, iron ore, gold, chrome, and zinc. It also possesses great quantities of coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
 The value of mineral extraction increased substantially in the 1990s. The increase is attributed to private investment, which has enabled the sector to benefit from new efficiency-boosting technologies and processes. Kazakhstan contains two of the world’s largest oil fields: the Tengiz field, located on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and the offshore Kashagan field.
The Tengiz field was first discovered in 1979, but it remained undeveloped until 1993. The Kashagan field was discovered in 2000 and is believed to contain reserves exceeding those of Tengiz. The country’s largest known gas reserves are also located near the Caspian Sea, at the Karachaganak field.
Foreign investment has been key to development of the fields and their distribution routes. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium was formed in 1993 to address the lack of viable oil and gas pipelines from landlocked Kazakhstan.
The consortium involves international oil companies and the governments of Kazakhstan, Russia, and Oman. In 2001 the consortium opened a new pipeline from the Tengiz field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.
Domestic use of the country’s oil and gas is hindered by the lack of pipelines connecting producing areas in the west with consuming areas in the populous southeast and industrial north. The country therefore exports gas and oil through Russia and imports its energy needs from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Mining and smelting industry in Kazakhstan.

Mining and smelting system (MSS), а basic sector of the economy of Kazakhstan, has traditionally been the basis for the economy. About 90% of all MSS products аге exported to above 30 countries making 35% of the total exports of the country.
Mineral resources produced in Kazakhstan contain 76 elements of Mendeleev's table. The reserves of the country аге rated 4 in the world in copperг, 6 in zinc, 7 in cobalt and cadmium, 8 in gold. Copper ores processing plants, plants producing beryllium and tantalum аге biggest in the world, the richest deposits of polymetal and iron/anganese ores аге located in Kazakhstan.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the world's best-endowed states, possessing world-class deposits of minerals and raw materials. Vast quantities of base and precious metals have been discovered, with countless others waiting for discovery and development.
Kazakhstan is the ultimate mining and metallurgical country producing; 25 different kinds от ferrous, non- ferrous and precious metals. Some 233 mining enterprises produce а wide variety of commodities: coal, iron ore, chromites ores and ferroalloys, alumina, copper, lead, zinc, steel, titanium sponge, uranium, barites and others.
In general, about $55 bn., has been invested in the mining sector over the past decade, of which 15% was in prospecting. The bulk of this was spent оп developing natural resources. According to forecasts for 2006 - 2010, investment in the raw material sector is expected to exceed $48bn, and reach about $52bn in 2010 - 2015. 
Mining activities аге currently being carried out at 2,000 mines in Kazakhstan, which consists of prospecting at 132 mines (7%), extraction at 1,213 (61 %) and both activities at 641 (32%). In the Mining Industry, except for production of fuel-energy mineral resources volume index was 100.1 %, production volume - 522.57 bn. in 2008.

Precious Metals in Kazakhstan. Gold.
Kazakh territory is а major auriferous province. In terms of gold reserves (4% of world deposits) , the country occupies seventh place after South Africa, the USA, Australia, China, Russia, Canada and Indonesia, whereas in terms of output Kazakhstan is only among the top 20 countries.
Gold reserves аrе concentrated in 260 deposits in our country (40% in sulphide ore and 60% in gold ore). The Vasilkovskoye Zoloto joint venture, the Bakyrchik mining enterprise, the Kazakhmys Corporation, Kazzinc and the Kazakhaltyn mining company have large gold reserves (together accounting for 52% of the country's total reserves). Gold is being mined at 199 deposits.
А total of 71 companies аге operating in the sector: 48 local, 18 foreign and five joint ventures. These companies have invested about $1 bn., over the past decade (82% in extraction).
Most extraction (about а half) comes from composite sulphide deposits developed by Kаzzinc and the Kazakhmys Corporation. А further 40% is extracted by Vasilkovskoye Zoloto, Аltуnаlmаs, Kazakhaltyn, Yubileynoye, Аndаs-Аltуn, Аlty-Tobe and Dank companies which аге developing their own gold deposits.
These соmpanies have gold reserves that will last between 10 and 80 years. These resources can be increased through placer deposits, mineralized formations and secondary quartzite that have а quite high concentration of gold in ore.
Dеvеlоping hard and complex ore will also increase the ore base. As а result, according to forecasts, Kazakhstan will become а leading gold producer by 2015.

Silver  in Kazakhstan.  
Silver reserves аге discovered in 100 deposits of which 60% аге cooper-lead-zinc deposits. Silver production is concentrated on affiliated companies of Kazakhmys i.e. Zhеzkаzgапzvеtmеt and Balkhashzvetmet. In 2007, Kazakhstan produced 591 tоп of silver, up 88,1 % from the year 2006.

Nопfеггоus Metals in Kazakhstan. Сорреr.
In terms of proven copper reserves Kazakhstan occupies fourth place in the world's reserves (5,5% of world deposits), behind China, Indonesia and the USA. The state register records 93 copper deposits, half of which are being developed.
The major enterprises operating in the sector аге the Kazakhmys Corporation, Каzzinc, Аktubinsk Cooper Company, Маikаinzоlоtо. During the past decade, over $1.7 bn., was invested in the sector; 99% of this was into extraction. Kazakhstan will be among he world's top 10 copper producers by 2015. The sector has reserves to last from 20 to 30 years.
An additional source that will strengthen the raw material base аге а number of sulphide, polymetal and copper disseminated deposits and cupriferous sandstone.
Kazakh export of copper concentrate varies between 100 - 200 thousand tons per year. Main expon markets аге China, Russia and Uzbekistan. 

Lead, zinc in Kazakhstan.  
In terms of proven zinc (9,5% of world deposits)and lead (10% of world deposits) reserves Kazakhstan occupies fourth place (behind Australia, the USA and Russia) and sixth place (behind Russia, Australia, Canada, the USA  and China), respectively.
The state register records 85 lead deposits and 79zinc deposits. The mining of polymetals is being carried out at 32 deposits, consisting of extraction at twenty (63%), prоspecking and extraction at nine (28%) and prospecting at three (9%).
The main raw material base is composite sulphide and polymetal deposits in Rudnyy Altay, which produces over two-thirds of the country’s total lead and zinc outputs. Deposits аге developed using underground
methods. The main enterprise in the sector is Каzzinc. Kazakhmys is involved in collateral production and accounts for а third of the total lead and zinc ore outputs. In total, there аге 14 enterprises operating in this sector (11 local, 2 foreign and 1 joint venture) and they enable Kazakhstan to occupy sixth place in the world in terms of lead and zinc production.
А new zinc production with capacity of 30 thousand tоns per year has been built by "Uzhpolimetal". Another plant with production capacity of 100 thousand tons is under construction by metallurgical company Shalkiya".
Over the past decade, about $2.5 bn., was invested in the sector. Investment grew three-fold to $463 million in 2005-06 from 1996 volumes. Almost 100% of this was spent оп extraction. Kazzinc accounted  for 62% of the total investment and Kazakhmys accounted for 25%.
The sector has reserves to last about 25 years. Replenishing reserves is а topical issue at the moment. The prospects for developing the raw material base n this sector depend оп discovering new high-quality deposits, developing major deposits with complex and poor ores and reprocessing scrap metal.
85-88% of zinc production is exported with main destinations as Netherlands, Turkey, Italy, Ukraine and China.

Aluminium (bauxite) in Kazakhstan.  
 In terms of proven bauxite reserves, Kazakhstan occupies tenth place behind Guinеа, Australia, Jamaica, Brazil, India, China, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. The state register lists 20 bauxite mines.
Aluminium of Kazakhstan, which includes the Pavlodar Aluminium Plant and the Krasnooktyabrki and Torgay bauxite mining departments, accounts for the entire bauxite and marketable aluminium outputs.
Investment in mining bauxite total led $394 million in the past decade. Almost all the funds came from Aluminium of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is currently producing 4.5 million tоn of bauxite a year, and this figure is expected to grow to 5 million ton by 2010.
The sector has sufficient reserves to last about 50 years. Adopting а new technological line at the Pavlodar Aluminium Plant has created conditions to produce alumina from low-quality bauxite which makes it possible to increase the raw material base of the sector from the ехisting deposits. Technology to extract gallium, aluminium sulphate and sodium-sulphate mixture has been improved to boost the deposits' productivity. 
Kazakhstan does not yet produce metallic aluminium because he main consumers of our raw material аге Russian enterprises. However, in 2007 our country started to build its own plant to produce primary aluminium with capacity of 250 thousand tons per year. Two more plants аге under construction.

Nickel and cobalt. in Kazakhstan.
In terms of nickel and cobalt reserves Kazakhstan occupies twelfth and seventh places in the world, respectively. The state register records 39 nickel deposits and 55 cobalt deposits.
Kazakhstanskiy Nikel, Kyzyl Kain Mamyt and the Sokolov-Sarbay Ore – enrichment Production Association own major deposits. Five companies, two foreign and three local, аге operating in the sector.
They invested over $1 bn., n the sector during the past decade, 63% in extraction. The annual volume of investment grew four-fold over this period and totalled $8.6m (2005).
Almost the entire Kazakh nickel output is exported. Taking into account that the sector has reserves for many years and the growing world demand for nickel, intensifying extraction and enriching and processing nickel ore аге topical issues for Kazakhstan.

Ferrous Metals in Kazakhstan. Iron, manganese.
In terms of proven iron reserves Kazakhstan occupies sixth place in the world (behind Russia, Australia, Ukraine, China and Brazil) and fourth place (behind South Africa, Ukraine and Gabon) in terms of manganese.
The iron and manganese sector is а major sector in the country's raw material industry. The state register records 47 iron deposits and 31 manganese deposits. Orken, the Sokolov-Sarbay Ore-enrichment Production Association, the Zhayrem Ore-enrichment Combine and the Kazkhrom transnational company have largest raw material bases (accounting for 98% of the entire industrial reserves).
Mining iron and manganese is being carried out at 32 deposits, with prospecting at seven (22%), extraction at 1 О (31 %) and both activities at 15 (47%). There are 23 companies operating in the sector, of which 3 аге foreign and 20 аге local.
They invested $1.7bn in the sector over the past decade - almost all of it went to extraction. Kazakhstan is expected to produce 55 - 60 million tn., of iron ore and 4-5 million tn., of manganese ore in 2010 and 80 million tn., and 7 million tn., respectively, in 2015. 
The current output levels provide the enterprises with reserves for over 80 years in terms of iron ore and over 100 years in terms of manganese ore. This is enough not only to fully satisfy the demands of domestic ferrous metallurgy, but also to allow for efficient export activities.

Chromium in Kazakhstan..
In terms of proven chromium reserves our country is аn unconditional leader - Kazakhstan has а third of the world's chromium reserves. The raw material base of the local chromium sector is the most qualitative and competitive sector.
The  state register lists 23 deposits with almost all industrial reserves owned by the transnational company, Kazkhrom. Mining is being carried out at nine deposits owned by Kazkhrom and one by Voskhod-Oriel. The sector attracted investments totalling $1,092.7m in the past decade.
The our country is currently producing about 4 million tn., of chromium ore and this figure is expected to grow to 7 million tn., in 2010 and 9 million tn., by 2015. The chromium reserves аге enough to last for over 90 years.
The raw material base covers both domestic consumption and the country's export potential. In addition to investing in developing fuel and energy resources, precious, non-ferrous and ferrous metals, investment is being made in mining precious stones 
(diamonds and emeralds), rare metals (for example, tungsten and molybdenum) and other natural resources (including widespread ones), underground waters and mud used in medical treatment.
The investment activities of mining companies have had and аге continuing to have а positive impact оn the country's socioeconomic development. Mining companies spent $63.4m on training and education and $195.8m on the social sphere. The share of companies with foreign involvement in the total amount of investment was 16% а decade ago, whereas this figure stood at 76% last year.
Subcontracting was worth $7,731.4т in 2005 and grew almost 30-fold from 1997. Subcontracting accounted for only 9% of the total investment in 1997, whereas this figure was 61 % in 2005. In addition, the share of services and goods supplied by Kazakh companies has also grown by type of activity: to 34% in supplying services, to 56% in supplying goods, to 29% in supplying equipment, to 35% in construction services and to 23% in other types of activities.
Between 1996 and 2005, the country's budget received over $16.5 bn., n taxes and payments by mining companies, including over $3.5 bn., in royalties. The budget payments grew by 19-fold to $5.8 bn., in 2005 from 1996, including royalties to $1.3bn.

"Zhetysu is the Land of  tourism”. A Tourist Guide-book. Almaty.  2003. 68 p. and the material for this page is taken from the printed edition."Guide to Kazakhstan" Baur Publishing House 2002.