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## Omar Khayyam.

**Cultural tours in Uzbekistan.**

*«Memory is the treasure house of the mind wherein the monuments thereof are kept and preserved»*

__Thomas Fuller.__

**Culture of Uzbekistan.**

Giyasiddin Fath ibn Ibrahim Omar Khayyam Nishapuri is a great scientist, astronomer, poet, philosopher, mathematician and classic of Persian-Tajik poetry. The work of the world-famous poet is peculiar and surprising, his discoveries in various fields of science had historical significance and were translated into many languages of the world.

Omar Khayyam was born in Nishapur in 1048. He was the son of a camper. At the age of 8, the boy already knew the Quran by heart, studied mathematics, astronomy and philosophy. At the age of 12, he began studying at the Nishapur madrassa, where he brilliantly completed a course in Islamic law and medicine, and was qualified as a doctor.

But medicine was not as interested in him as astronomy and mathematics. Omar loved to study the works of great astronomers and Greek mathematicians. At 16, Omar Khayyam lost his parents during an epidemic. He sold his father's house and went to Samarkand, the scientific and cultural center of the time.

First, he became a student of a madrasa, then he was appointed a mentor, after several appearances in disputes, where he was able to show his knowledge. Four years later, from Samarkand, he moved to Bukhara, where he worked in the repositories of books.

In Bukhara, he wrote four major treatises on mathematics. Around 1069, Omar Khayyam created a treatise “On the proofs of the problems of algebra and almukabala”. Here, Omar Khayyam presented an algebraic method for solving quadratic equations, a geometric method for solving cubic equations, in which known data were constructed as the intersection points of two conic sections.

The scientist presented the rationale for the method, the algorithm for choosing the type of conic section, classified the types of equations, gave an estimate of the number of roots and their values. Omar Khayyam did not find that a cubic equation could have three positive roots, but he hoped that future scientists would be able to find solutions to cubic equations.

And only 400 years later, Italian scientists derived the Cardano formulas, thanks to which three positive roots of the cubic equation were discovered. In 1074, Omar Khayyam was invited to the center of the state of Sanjar, in the city of Isfahan, to the courtyard of Melikshah I.

At the initiative of the chief vizier, Omar was appointed spiritual master of the sultan, and Melikshah I appointed him as the head of one of the largest palace observatories. Here he developed his famous solar calendar.

Omar Khayyam proposed a new calendar, more accurate of all previously created, consisting of 8 leap years for 33 years. The calendar of Omar Khayyam was adopted as the basis of the Iranian calendar, which has officially been in Iran since 1079.

By 1077 he created the book “Comments on the difficult tenets of the book of Euclid”. Here he considered irrational numbers, defining the equality of two relations as the sequential equality of all suitable partial Euclidean algorithms. In this work, Khayyam tried to study and prove the fifth postulate of Euclid, based on the simple theory that two converging lines must intersect.

However, after the death of the Shah, he was forced to leave the city of Isfahan, where he was accused of godless freethinking. Then Omar Khayyam made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Later, in 1097, in Khorasan, he worked as a doctor and created a treatise “On the universality of being” in Farsi.

The poems of the great poet Omar Khayyam are amazing for their conciseness, capacity, vivid imagery, flexibility of rhythm and simplicity of the figurative means used. His philosophy is close to the humanists of the Renaissance ("The goal of the creator and the top of creation are we").

He was outraged by the existing order, the vices of society and religious dogma. Often the poet fell into fanaticism and pessimism, which were so characteristic of the Middle Ages, especially in the East. The existing world was considered transient and temporary, and many philosophers and theologians believed that bliss and eternal life can be found only after death.

And all this was reflected in the work of Omar Khayyam. The poet was also very fond of real life, but he did not accept her imperfections and in every way appealed to receive pleasure from every moment, without taking into account the existing manners, practices and persecutions of the Inquisition of such views on life.

The true connoisseurs of the wise word still value the ruby of Omar Khayyam to this day. His quatrains are full of humor, wisdom, wickedness and audacity. The great scientist Omar Khayyam made a number of valuable discoveries in the field of mathematics, astronomy and physics.

Khayyam's results in the field of mathematics relate to three areas: parallel theory, algebra and relation theory, and the theory of number. Khayyam had predecessors and successors in all three areas. Among his predecessors, such scientists as Aristotle and Euclid and others, but along with them, he is a prominent representative of the new mathematics with a powerful computational algorithmic component.

The work of Omar Khayyam, along with other scientists, constituted an essential link in the chain of research of the theory of a real number and the mathematical analysis based on it.

The following works of Omar Khayyam are known: “Difficulties of arithmetic” (unfortunately, scientists do not know the location of this work), “Algebraic treatise” (Tehran), “Treatise on proofs of the problems of algebra and almukabala” (New York, London, Rome, Paris, Leiden) and “Comments to the difficulties in the introductions of the book of Euclid” (Leiden).

Omar Khayyam spent the last 15 years of his life in solitude in the city of Nishapur. He devoted a lot of time to reading and almost did not communicate with people. In the last hours of his life, Khayyam read Ibn Sina’s philosophical essay, The Book of Healing.

He read up to the section "On unity and universality", put the book aside, prayed, and on December 4, 1131, he was no more.

__Enlightener____:__*"Religious and spiritual monuments of Central Asia." Author M. Khashimov. Saga Publishing, 2001*