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Foreign Trade of Kazakhstan.

In 2000 exports earned $9.1 billion and imports cost $5 billion. Chief exports were crude petroleum, refined and unrefined metals, coal, and cereals. Imports included machinery, vehicles, consumer goods, foodstuffs, and natural gas.
Although Kazakhstan conducts trade with a diverse number of countries, Russia is by far the largest single trading partner.  Since gaining independence, Kazakhstan has become more integrated into the world economy while also seeking closer economic integration with other former Soviet republics.
In 1994 Kazakhstan signed a partnership accord that established economic contacts with the European Union (EU). Also that year, Kazakhstan formed a trilateral economic and defense union with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan; with the addition of Tajikistan in 1998, the four nations formed the Central Asian Economic Union (renamed the Central Asian Economic Forum in 2001).
In 1996 Kazakhstan formed a customs union with Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade; in 1998 Tajikistan also became a member.
In 2000 these five countries broadened the scope of the customs union by founding the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) to coordinate trade policies and promote economic interaction. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), which promotes economic cooperation between Islamic states.

"Zhetysu is the Land of  tourism”. A Tourist Guide-book. Almaty.  2003. 68 p. and the material for this page is taken from the printed edition."Guide to Kazakhstan" Baur Publishing House. 2002