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Home » Minarets Dishan-Kala. The Architectural ensemble of Khiva - heart of Khoresm.

Muhammad Aminkhan Minaret.

Architectural monuments in territory of the Khorezm province.

"This velayat is free of battles, quarrels, theft and there is no case of failure to return the money borrowed. Nobody quarrels with each other; anybody doesn't even raise the voice. If any of his subjects no matter what class it is, higher or lower, has something to say, he may go to His Highness Khan Muhammad Aminkhan without any obstacles and express to him his request or complaint. If it is a secular case he makes a decision himself and if it be a Sharia matter he instructs his Qazi Kalyan. Charging only zakat, for the rest he doesn't claim for someone's property. Under zakat he charges only one part out of forty, in terms of money he doesn't oppress. In this country everything is cheap, there are a lot of fruits and they are very tasty and their melons are excellent, mulberry fruits are tastier than in Shamran, and fig fruits are better than in Mazandaran. But grapes aren't so good. In the farms channels are full of water. Khan of Khiva took over provision of its subjects with water and land. To everyone a piece of land per one tanap was allocated, everyone who went out on a trip (campaign) one horse would be handed out and for loading on during the traveling two camels. Therefore who is not aware of it (the enemies) his ten thousand warriors seem like thirty thousand, instilling fear into their hearts. They dig the area around the palace (Urda). If someone's horse or a camel dies in a campaign, the loss is compensated to the owner by money equal to its cost, everyone who returns from a campaign is given five tumans. The salary of each person shall not exceed fifty tumans. For this reason, Vilayat is arranged well and its treasury is never empty"

Mirza Rizakulikhan Shirazi Lalabash.

Travel experience in Khiva.

According to historical sources, close to every mosque and madrassah there towered a minaret. One of the most famous minarets in Khiva is unfinished minaret Mohammed Aminkhan.
The shape of the minaret is a truncated cone, which, although in an incomplete state looks really impressive. If we proceed from the dynamic constriction of the minaret, after the completion of its height having reached about 70 - 80 meters, he was supposed to be the biggest and tallest minaret in Central Asia.
If you watch the insolation (refraction of rays falling onto the majolica surface of minaret) of the sunlight falling on the minaret, we can see that color of the majolica does not change. Normally sunbeam affecting the any object changes its color, that is, the initial color of the object turns white or becomes less lush.
However, on the minaret you cannot notice it. Despite the fact that it has been quite some time since its construction the minaret looks like newly built. In architecture blue, green, dark blue colors are characterized as "cold tones".
Although here majorly white coloring is applied it looks as if it is decorated with the "warm" colors. In majolica red tones are used, but it is almost imperceptible for the eye. Here the integrity and color harmony is preserved.
In the decoration of the minaret geometrical patterns (girikh) were applied generally in a large number. To the top of the minaret staircase leads from the level of the second floor, i.e. you can climb the minaret by a spiraling wooden stairs leading to the top.
These stairs were restored from time to time. Minaret construction was started in 1853 by Mohammad Aminkhan and in 1855 after the murder of the Khan during a military campaign to Northern Iran and enthronement of Abdulla khan the construction works were suspended.
Missing on majolica inscriptions in Arabic font in Farsi fallen away over time from the top of the minaret were restored in 1997, on the eve of 2500 anniversary of Khiva. Restoration of these inscriptions on majolica was made by the masters restorers of Hayot joint-stock company.
Inscriptions in Farsi with the verses of Agehi have been restored to its original form. Restoration of letters on majolica was realized by the master restorer of the majolica art Rustam Takhirov.
The content of the text is roughly as follows: "The tall minaret bringing delight to the human soul has been erected. The eyes of the heaven have not yet have seen alike. Its fame reached the Emirs of the earth.
Its sides are deprived of fault and flaws. If to behold them with justice eyes, a cypress tree before it will look like a straw. It is better than Tubo tree delights the hearts. Its beautiful look has changed the face of the earth and the heavens like the paradise.
It has become such a pillar of heaven that the mind can not understand it. In this regard, Agehi wrote a year of its construction "Infinite pillar of the heavens" built in the year of Hijra 1271 (1855)".
About construction of minarets Mullah Haji Alim Makhdoom in his work "History of Turkistan" writes the following: "After the completion of construction of the madrassah at the behest of the Khan a decree was issued on the construction of the highest minaret next to the madrassah.
In the course of construction of the minaret (1855), Muhammad Aminkhan made marches to Iran and died as a martyr (shahid), as a result the minaret, which he started to build, remained unfinished.
In fact, the real story of the event is as follows: Muhammad Aminkhan in 1271Hijra, in the second day of the week, Dushanba, (now considered to be Monday) of the month of Jumad ul Okhir was killed at the place Qanlitepa which was under the subjugation of Serakhs.
But that deed of Turkmens did not come to their liking of Nasriddinshah. Because the ruler of Hivak and the son of the Khan of Khorezm beginning with his parents and grandparents, like the Shah of Iran, faithfully served to Allah and observed the foundations of the Master Mawlavi Hanif Ahmadiya, for the benefit of the Prophet Muhammad, and he with no long delay issued the Shah`s Decree to build in Tehran near the central State gate the mausoleum with a high dome where along with the head of the Khan were buried all his belongings and stuff, were made ritual prayers from the Koran and to appease his spirit donations were given to the poor and disadvantaged.
But despite this the minaret even in that state looks majestic and beautiful. It is decorated with majolica tiles of various coloring. At the beginning of our century people, exalting it, conferd a title of "Ulli Minar" ("Great Minaret") on it, "Kok Minar".
Contemporaries  described Muhammad Aminkhan as follows. Madrasah Muhammad Amin Khan was renovated in 1979 and converted into a hotel for tourists.